Formal report is the most important and common issue now a days so, we provide here formal report example / formal report format / formal report template / formal report sample to make the topic very clear.
This is a outline of a formal report example form here any one can get idea about structure of formal report including all other information regarding formal report. Now every one can write a effective formal report easily by viewing this formal report example.
Formal Report example
Existence of Internal Control Structure (ICS)-in the CELL PHONE Sector
Dr. Mahmuda Akther
Dept. of AIS
University of Dhaka.
MD. Tanvir Hossian
Roll. 58 M.B.A (3rd Batch)
Dept. of AIS
University of Dhaka.
Letter of Transmittal
April 20, 2004
Dr. Mahmuda Akter
Dept. of Accounting & Information systems (AIS)
University of Dhaka
This is a report on Existence of Internal Control Structure in the Cell phone sector for fulfillment of course works of MBA Program and it is my pleasure to present such before you.
I have prepared this report based on the data gathered from interviewing various higher officials of cell phone Company in terms questionnaire. For the preparation of the report I have focused on the information that was found to be reliable and valid.
I truly appreciate my topics to be an important and significant one to enhance knowledge without which I would be surely in vague position. And I deeply regret for any inconvenience located in this report and I shall always be available for any clarification required.
Mohammed Tanvir Hossain
Roll: 58, MBA 3rd Batch
Dept. of Accounting & Information Systems
University of Dhaka
This is high time for me to convey my deepest gratitude and sincere submission to the Almighty ALLAH for giving me the opportunity to accomplish such a huge task of preparing this report.
I convey my heartfelt thanks to my honorable teacher and supervisor Dr. Mahmuda Akter for his careful suggestion and enthusiasm bringing words at every time during the preparation of report.
And it is worth mentioning to utter the name of my all-respectable teachers of my Department from whom I have learned over the academic years.
I have so far given my best effort, to prepare and represent the report according to instruction of my honorable supervisor. I hope my endeavor will be beneficial to the audience and urge for exonerate eye for any mistake or error found in the report.
Mohammad Tanvir Hossain
Roll: 58 (MBA)
MBA 3rd Batch
Department of Accounting & Information Systems
Table of contents
|1||Introduction||1 & 2|
|2||Methodology of the study||2|
|3||Analysis of Data||3|
|4||Findings||5 & 6|
Statement of the Problem:
This report is about “INTERNAL CONTROL STRUCTURE” in mobile operating firms in Bangladesh. The term internal literary means within an organization and control means” a mechanism. A control framework ensures those relevant control measures whose purpose is to provide assurance that certain risk exposures are countered within the corporate formal structures. Because controls and security measures are implemented within a firm’s formal structures are closely interconnected, the control frame work is called internal control or the internal control structures (ICS). These structures provide the means through which the internal control process functions. If a proper ICS is implemented, all of the operations, physical resources, and data will be monitored and under control, objectives will be achieved, risks will be minimized and information output will be authentic. On the contrary if the ICS is weak and unsound, the firm’s resources should be adherent to various’ loss such as theft, negligence, carelessness, and other risks. As a result information generated from information systems would be unreliable, untimely, and unrelated to the firm’s activities and objectives.
Where as in today’s communication, cell phone is contributing as an inevitable organ without which man seems to be lackluster in the age of communication. Cell phone has occupied the heart of human being within a very short span of time. This trend has also flourished in Bangladesh and captured approximately 38 lacs people within five (5) years of time. Obviously those mobile operators have taken a major role to enhance the communication here. How this happened with the flick of an eye, no doubt calls for a matter of pivotal interest. This has highlighted to assess the ICS of those cell operators, and we have given a look through our conscious endeavor.
Objectives of the Study:
To identify the extent of INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM (ICS) in terms of strength and weakness in those cell phone operators. Arid here we given emphasis to various control components to meet the said purpose.
Scope of the Study:
Our scope was extended to all the mobile operators in Bangladesh. And the idea and notion of various AIS books have given a better exposure towards control components to conduct our study.
Cell phone operators in Bangladesh have effective and strong ICS
> Strategic Management initiates all pervasive ICS
> Associated Risks are properly identified, measured, and diversified.
> ICS helps to achieve the organizational goal.
We have given emphasis on the internal control structure and our questionnaire has highlighted to specific areas and not to all areas of the organization. Restricted access to data of those mobile operators also acted as a hindrance to our study. So based on the conclusion of this study, we should not have any rigidity and we should not have any negative impression or attitude toward any mobile operators.
Methodology of the study;
Population (sample) size
We have taken all i.e. four (4) private cell operators into considerations that are operating in Bangladesh,
- Grameen phone Ltd, [having, subscribers more than 20 lacks)
- Aktel [having subscribers about 10 lacks]
- Pacific Telecommunication [having subscribers about 4 lacks]
- Sheba Telecom Ltd. [having subscribers about 2.5 lacks]
Methods used to collect data:
We have used questionnaire containing 37 questions related to various control components to collect data. And for this we have interviewed the respective officer relating to our matter of interest.
Tool used for Analysis:
Measure of central Tendency in terms of mean & standard deviation and coefficient of variation have been used to analyze data.
Analysis of the Data
|Name of the firm||Q4.1||Q4.2||Q4.3||Q5||Q6||Q7||Q8||Q9||Q10||Q11||Q12||Q13||Q14||Q15||Q16.1||Q16.2||Q16.3||Q16.4||Q17||Q18|
|Coefficient of Variation||0.000||0.091||0.000||0.396||0.000||0.000||0.346||0,000||0.192||0.091||0.429||0437||0.429||0.474||0.000||0.192||0.396||0.437||0.000||0.091|
The analysis of data helps us to draw the following findings:
All mobile operators have almost same attitude towards control objective where deviation is insignificant.
Management philosophy and operating style:
All operators have target towards long term goal and they avoid undue risk.
Integrity and ethical values:
Those operators maintain strict integrity towards their performance while competence is subject to little variation.
Board of directors and audit committee:
The attitude of board of directors of those operators varies in a substantial way. In pacific tale communication, it is found that there is no internal audit and separate audit committee, where other three (3) operators do have. The activities of audit committee of others are found to be almost same.
Exception to pacific telecommunication, all the operators have almost same organizational structure. None existence of internal audit committee and its respective functions has made this specific distinction.
Assignment of authority and expandability:
There is proper segregation of duties and decentralization exists among the cell operators and this component tends to be existing all the time.
Human resources policies and, practice:
All the operators are indifferent to such component where they have strict adherence to it.
Such Component deviates a lot because types of risk vary from company to company.
Segregation of duties:
Source documents are properly designed, kept and matched with records by the operators.
Adequate safeguard to assets:
Assets are properly managed and safe guarded by the operators strictly. Their attitude towards this aspect is laudable.
All the company have regular monitoring activities but the way of performing such activities differ according to the set up and line of structure of the organization.
From the said findings it can be deduced that all the cell operators have adherence to ICS but the extent of compliance of various components of ICS differs because the strategy of the operators vary as well as exposure towards risk is not same for all operators due to variation of their market share. Grameen phone having almost 53% market share, is leading in Bangladesh in the tale communication sector and maintains praise worthy ICS. Aktel with 27%, Pacific telecommunication with 16% and Sheba with 4% market share are also having significant ICS. Had there been no ICS they could not have overcome the hindrances faced by Bangladesh TNT. Existence of ICS causes these operators to be expanding day by day and therefore increasing the Tele-Density than that of the before. They have really created a momentum in the communication sector.
- Joseph w. Wilknson and Michael J. Cerullo, Accounting Information Systems (Third Edit.)
- Stephen A. Moscove, Mark G. Simkin and Nancy A. Bagranoff, Core Concepts of Accounting Information Systems (Fifth edition)
Related Content of Report Writing:
- Definition of Graphical Representation of Report
- A Effective Structure of a Market Report
- Definition and Uses of Formal Reports
- Internal Report Template
- Informal Report Example for Business
- Difference Between Formal and Informal Reports
- Importance of Market Report for Market Research
- Principles of a Market Report for Market Research
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data
- Difference Between Informational Report and Analytical Report
- Importance of Market Report for Marketing of Agricultural Product
- Types of Market Report
- Structure of a Report and Sample Report in Letter Format
- Market Research Report Template, Sample, Example and Format
- Market Report Definition
- Essential Features of a Market Report
- Annual Report Template, Sample, Example and Format
- Internal Control Questionnaire to Evaluate Internal Control Structure
- Formal Report example / Format / Template / Sample
- Parts of Informal Report
- How to Write an Informal Report Step by Step
- How to Write a Formal Report Effectively
- Steps to Write a Report Effectively
- Effective Business Report Writing Methods
- Purposes / Objectives / Significance / Importance of Report
- Principles / Qualities of a Good Report